Asked about his opposition to the inclusion of financial services in a free trade agreement between the EU and the UK, he said: „I am here not to penalise or reward. I want to make sure that the internal market is preserved, because that is the heart of the EU. „We therefore believe that the outcome would be less desirable, even in the case of a bilateral agreement, than in the case of a Brexit or an orderly Brexit that would open the prospect of a cooperation agreement between the EU and the UK on these EU instruments.“ 111 63.In March 2019, Caroline Nokes, then Minister of Immigration, Caroline Nokes MP, told us that the government`s objective was to obtain the withdrawal agreement, under which the United Kingdom would remain under the Dublin system during the transition period. This would provide time for the negotiation of an agreement on future cooperation on asylum and migration between Britain and the EU. However, the UK`s ultimate intention would be to leave GEAS, including Dublin, and explore a new framework for cooperation on the basis of the July 2018 White Paper on future relations between Britain and the EU.59 „All indications are that we should work on some form of bilateral agreement if we break up without agreement, otherwise [transfers] do not work. I hope that the British government will extend the hand of cooperation to the French on this issue, even before we have concluded our Brexit agreements. 110 Strong differences of opinion on the British border with France are difficult to resolve. Mrs May has provided additional funds for border security in Calais – and has proposed separate Chinook helicopters to transport French troops safely over Mali. THE MINISTER – Yes, but from the beginning…

You know, when we held referendums in France, we put a text on the table. And we said: are you for or against the text? The problem is that the British did not say yes or no to a text, they did not say yes or no to an agreement, they said yes or no to a concept. And today, between the will of the people to leave the European Union and the way in which this can happen, we obviously see a lot of difficulties. That is why we need the British to tell us what they want. 86.The United Kingdom maintains particularly close bilateral relations with France and, to a lesser extent, with Belgium. The main feature of this relationship is the operation of parallel border controls, where the UK completes passenger and freight checks for the UK at the ports of Calais and Dunkirk, at the Eurotunnel terminal in Coquelles for vehicles and at Paris Gare du Nord, Lille, Lille-Frethun and Brussels Midi stations for Eurostar passengers. The French border guards also carry out checks at the entry of the Schengen area into the United Kingdom89 The main bilateral and tripartite agreements underlying these agreements are described in Box 4.